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"Shaping Landscape Architecture in the Early 20th Century: Race, Gender, and DifferenceWorks cited by Thaïsa Way

Thaïsa Way is the Program Director for Garden & Landscape Studies at Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, a Harvard University research institution located in Washington DC.  Thaïsa presented an online lecture entitled "Shaping Landscape Architecture in the Early 20th Century: Race, Gender, and Difference" to CGLHS members on February 17, 2021. A video recording of the lecture can be viewed on the Members Only CGLHS Talks page of this website.  

Works cited during the talk are listed below:

“African-American Gardens at Monticello.” Monticello Accessed August 4, 2020.

Allen, Walter R. and  Joseph O. Jewell, Kimberly A. Griffin, and De'Sha S. Wolf. "Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Honoring the Past, Engaging the Present, Touching the Future." The Journal of Negro Education 76, no. 3 (2007): 263-280.

Anne Spencer House and Garden Museum. “Biography.” Anne Spencer House and Garden

Museum. Accessed August 4, 2020.

Begg, Virginia Lopez. "Influential Friends: Charles Sprague Sargent and Louisa Yeomans King." Journal of the New England Garden History Society. Vol. 1 (Fall 1991): 38-45.   

Bell, Susan Groag. "Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: A Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth-Century English Garden History." Feminist Studies 16, no. 3 (1990): 471-91

Berry, Daina Ramey, and Gross, Kali Nicole. A Black Women's History of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press, 2020.

“Black Women’s Club Movement.” Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. Accessed July 6, 2020.

Blain, Keisha N. Set the World on Fire : Black Nationalist Women and the Global Struggle for Freedom. Politics and Culture in Modern America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

Brown, Nikki. Private Politics and Public Voices :Black Women's Activism from World War I to the New Deal. Blacks in the Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

Burnett, Frances Hodgson, and Tasha Tudor. The Secret Garden. 1st Harper Trophy ed. New York: Harper Collins, 1987.

Combahee River Collective. "“The Combahee River Collective Statement” (1977)." In Available Means: An Anthology Of Women's Rhetoric(s), edited by Ritchie Joy and Ronald Kate, Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001: 292-300.

Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics [1989].” In Feminist Legal Theory, 1st ed. Routledge, 1991: 57-80.

Davidson, R. W. Introduction to The Spirit of the Garden, Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press: 2001.

Davis, Elizabeth Lindsay. Lifting As They Climb. District of Columbia: National Association of Colored Women, 1933, originally published 1933.

Farrand, Beatrix. The Bulletins of Reef Point Gardens. Bar Harbor, Me. : Sagaponack, N.Y.: Island Foundation ; Distributed by Sagapress, 1997.

Ford, Charita M. "Flowering a Feminist Garden: The Writings and Poetry of Anne Spencer." Sage (Atlanta, Ga.) 5, no. 1 (1988): 7-14.

Foucault, Michel. The Order of Things. New York: Vintage Books, 1971. 

Frischkorn, Rebecca T., Anne Spencer, and Reuben M. Rainey. Half My World : The Garden of Anne Spencer, a History and Guide. Lynchburg, Va.: Warwick House Pub., 2003.

Frost, H. A. and W. R. Sears. Women in Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Northhampton, Massachusetts: Smith College, 1928.

Giesecke, Annette, and Naomi Jacobs. Earth Perfect? : Nature, Utopia and the Garden. London: Black Dog Publishing, 2012.

Giesecke, Annette, and Naomi Jacobs. The Good Gardener? : Nature, Humanity and the Garden. London: Artifice Books on Architecture, 2015.

“Gilles Deleuze/ Becoming.” The Human Geography Knowledge Base. Accessed August 1, 2020.

Glave, Dianne D. Rooted in the Earth : Reclaiming the African American Environmental Heritage. 1st ed. Chicago, Ill.: Lawrence Hill Books, 2010.

Gundaker, Grey, and Tynes Cowan. Keep Your Head to the Sky : Interpreting African American Home Ground, Democracy and Urban Landscapes. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.

“Guide to the Century of Progress International Exposition,” University of Chicago Library,, Accessed July 7, 2020.

Haraway, Donna Jeanne. When Species Meet. Posthumanities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

Harris, Carmen V. "The South Carolina Home in Black and White: Race, Gender, and Power in Home Demonstration Work." Agricultural History 93, no. 3 (2019): 477-501.

Harris, Dianne Suzette. Little White Houses : How the Postwar Home Constructed Race in America. Architecture, Landscape, and American Culture Series. Minneapolis, Minnesota ; London: University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Harris, Dianne. "Women as Gardeners," in Encyclopedia of Gardens : History and Design, ed. Candice A. Shoemaker and Chicago Botanic Garden. New York: Routledge, 2018: 1448.

Heath, Barbara J., and Amber Bennett. “‘The Little Spots Allow’d Them’ The Archaeological Study of African American Hards.” Historical Archaeology 34(2) (2000): 38-55.

Henry, Marianne Morgan. "Notes: A Practical Course in Landscape Architecture." Bulletin of the Garden Club of America,  January 1938: 122-125.

Hetherington, Kevin. The Badlands of Modernity : Heterotopia and Social Ordering. International Library of Sociology. London; New York: Routledge, 1997.

“History.” Guide to the Delphinium Garden Club of Dayton Records. Wright State University, Special Collections and Archives, 1931-2012.

“History.” National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs. Accessed August 1, 2020.

hooks, bell. Belonging : A Culture of Place. New York: Routledge, 2008, 5.

hooks, bell. "Earthbound: On Solid Ground." in Belonging : A Culture of Place. New York: Routledge, 2008.

hooks, bell. Yearning : Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1999.

Hutcheson, M. B. The Spirit of the Garden. Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1923.

Hutcheson, Martha Brookes.“ Wider Program for Garden Clubs.” Address to the general meeting of the Garden Club of America, May 1919, New York, NY. Reprinted as “Excerpts from the Wider Program, 1919.” Bulletin of the Garden Club of America (Jan. 1938): 26-27.

Jay, Martin. Adorno. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984.

Johnson, Jessica Marie. Wicked Flesh: Black Women, Intimacy, and Freedom in the Atlantic World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2020.

Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow : Black Women, Work, and the Family from Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1985.

Jones, Martha S. Vanguard: How Black Women Broke Barriers, Won The Vote, And Insisted On Equality For All. Basic Books, 2020.

Koues, H. "Good Housekeeping Exhibition: Classic Modern Garden and Pavilion At A Century of Progress--Chicago." Good Housekeeping XCIX(2)1934): 54,55,56,132.

"Little House Gets Crop of 36 Apples," New York Times, July 20, 1935: 15.

Major, Judith K. Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer : A Landscape Critic in the Gilded Age. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013.

McKay, George. Radical Gardening: Politics, Idealism & Rebellion in the Garden. London, England: Frances Lincoln Publishers, dist. by PGW, May 2011.

"Model Home Opens; Throng Inspects It," New York Times, Nov 7, 1934: 33.

Mullins, Paul. “Gardens in the Black City: Landscaping 20th-Century African America.” Archaeology and Material Culture (blog). July 19, 2015. Accessed August, 4, 2020.

Neyland, Leedell W., and Fahm, Esther Glover. Historically Black Land-grant Institutions and the Development of Agriculture and Home Economics, 1890-1990. Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida A & M University Foundation, 1990.

Parker, Rozsika. “Unnatural History: Women, Gardening, and Feminity” in Kingsbury, Noël, and Tim Richardson. Vista : The Culture and Politics of Gardens. 1st Frances Lincoln ed. London: Frances Lincoln, 2005.

Phillps, Karen and Perry Howard. “2020 Landscape Architecture Speaker Series – Karen Phillips and Perry Howard.”, Accessed August 1, 2020.

Roberts, Edith Adelaide, and Elsa. Rehmann. American Plants for American Gardens. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Scholl, Jan. "Extension Family and Consumer Sciences: Why It Was Included in the Smith-Lever Act of 1914." Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 105, no. 4 (2013): 8-16.

Scott, Anne Firor. "Most Invisible of All: Black Women's Voluntary Associations." The Journal of Southern History 56, no. 1 (1990): 3-22.

Scott, Anne FirorNatural Allies: Women's Associations in American History. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Shipman, Ellen Biddle. "Garden-Notebook," in Ellen McGowan Biddle Shipman #1259, Division of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Cornell University Library, Ithaca.

Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M., and Sherene Baugher. "Introduction to the Historical Archaeology of Powered Cultural Landscapes." International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14, no. 4 (2010): 463-74.

Spicer, A. H. "The Gardening Women in Our Town." The House Beautiful, (1913): 103-104.

Sprague, Charles and William A. “Cover Page”,  Garden and Forest Magazine 10 (1897): 192.

Stackelberg, Katharine T. "Performative Space and Garden Transgressions in Tacitus' Death of Messalina." American Journal of Philology 130, no. 4 (2009): 595-624.

The Home Demonstration Agent; AIB 38-July 1951, US Department of Agriculture, booklet; 25-27.

Thoren, Roxi. “Dreaming True.” Places Journal, November 2018., Accessed August 1, 2020.

Van Rensselaer, Mariana (Mrs. Schuyler). "Landscape Gardening--a Definition." Garden and Forest 1, no. 1 (1888):2.

Van Rensselaer, Mariana (Mrs. Schuyler), Art Out-of-Doors : Hints on Good Taste in Gardening. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1893, 1925.

Vlach, John. The Back of the Big House. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1993.

Waldenberger, Suzanne. "Barrio Gardens: The Arrangement of a Woman's Space." Western Folklore 59, no. 3 (2000).

Walker, Alice. In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens : Womanist Prose. 1st ed. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.

Waring, G. E. Village improvements and farm villages. Boston, MA: J. R. Osgood and company, 1877.

Way, Thaïsa and Steven Calcott. "Expanding Histories/ Expanding Preservation: The Wild Garden as Designed Landscape" Journal of Preservation Education and Research, 2 (Fall 2009): 53-64.

Way Thaïsa. “Longue Vue Gardens and Landscape: Ellen Biddle Shipman’s Contributions" Longue Vue House and Gardens: The Architecture, Interiors, and Gardens of New Orleans' Most Celebrated Estate, Charles Davey and Carol McMichael Reese. New York: Skira Rizzoli, 2015: 192-221.

Way, Thaïsa. “Social Agendas of Early Women Landscape Architects.” Landscape Journal, 25/2 (Fall 2006): 187-204.

Way, Thaïsa. Unbounded Practice : Women and Landscape Architecture in the Early Twentieth Century. Democracy and Urban Landscapes. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009.

Westmacott, Richard Noble. African-American Gardens and Yards in the Rural South. 1st ed. Democracy and Urban Landscapes. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992.

“W.H. Manning to Frank Seiberling, Akron, Ohio, July 20, 1917,” Stan Hywett Archives.

White, Monica. Freedom Farmers: Agricultural Resistance and the Black Freedom Movement. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 2014.

Williams, H. Hamilton. Handbook of the Negro Garden Club of Virginia. Hampton, Virginia: Hampton institute, Department of ornamental horticulture and Division of summer and extension study cooperating, 1943.

Wolcott, Victoria W. Remaking Respectability : African American Women in Interwar Detroit. Gender & American Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Wood, Betty. Women's Work, Men's Work : The Informal Slave Economies of Lowcountry Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 1995.

Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One’s Own. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.

Wright, Richardson. “House & Gardens Own Hall of Fame.” House & Garden (June, 1933).

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